Subtracting Fractions
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Unit Goals
The learner will learn to apply knowledge about equivalent fractions, reducing fractions to lowest terms, subtracting fractions with unlike denominators, and borrowing fractions.
Unit Objectives
 The learner will learn to apply knowledge about equivalent fractions
 The learner will reduce fractions to lowest terms
 The learner will subtract fractions with unlike denominators and
 The learner will borrowing fractions
 The learner will create a 321 bridge to demonstrate an understanding of subtracting fractions
Background and Rationale
Learning how to subtract fractions helps to start to build confidence and establish a great foundation to more advanced math and science classes as it leads into multiplying and dividing fractions. Fractions are in everyday life; construction, recipes, and landscaping are just a few things where fractions show up. In this lesson, the student will learn about how to subtract fractions with unlike denominators and borrowing with fractions. The students will review adding fractions, equivalent fractions, improper fractions, mixed numbers, prime numbers, and LCM. The student will have access to lessons that have been taught online, and there will be extra problems provided for students that need more practice. The steps for the process will be given to them in their notes, Anchor Charts will be used, collaboration and conferencing with students and teacher will take place, and the students will be reflecting throughout the unit. At the end of the unit, along with an endoftheunit test, the students will be creating a 321 Bridge about subtracting fractions with unlike denominators. This will allow me to see if they truly understand what they are doing and why.
Lesson Objectives
Objective 
Bloom’s Verb 

Use the concepts and steps in solving the problems. 
Remembering 
Brainstorm ideas for a studentchosen topic 
Remembering 
Develop similes and metaphors as it is applied to fractions and used to develop their 321 bridge 
Analyzing 
Use the concepts they have learned to compare to a real world activity, object, person, place, or thing 
Creating 
Complete teacher’s examples of practice problems  Appying 
Provide peer feedback from peers and teacher 
Applying 
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Creating (highest level)
Common Core / State and District Standards
Clear, understandable, and consistent
Based on rigorous content and the application of knowledge through higherorder thinking skills
Built upon the strengths and lessons of current state standards
Technology Integration (ISTE Standards•S)
1. Creativity and innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.
 Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes
 Create original works as a means of personal or group expression
 Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues
 Identify trends and forecast possibilities
2. Technology operations and concepts Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
 Understand and use technology systems
 Select and use applications effectively and productively
 Troubleshoot systems and applications
 Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies
Learning and Innovation Skills (P21.org)
Creativity and innovation
Think Creatively:

Use a wide range of idea creation techniques (such as brainstorming)

Create new and worthwhile ideas (both incremental and radical concepts)

Elaborate, refine, analyze and evaluate their own ideas in order to improve and maximize creative efforts
Work Creatively with Others:

Develop, implement and communicate new ideas to others effectively

Be open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work
Reason Effectively:

Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each other to produce overall outcomes in complex systems
Make Judgments and Decisions

Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, arguments, claims and beliefs

Analyze and evaluate major alternative points of view

Reflect critically on learning experiences and processes
Communicate Clearly

Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts
Collaborate with Others

Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams
Life and Career Skills (P21.org)
Flexibility and Adaptability: Be Flexible

Incorporate feedback effectively

Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism
Initiative and Self Direction: Work Independently

Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks without direct oversight
Productivity and Accountability: Produce Results

Multitask

Participate actively, as well as be reliable and punctual

Present oneself professionally and with proper etiquette

Collaborate and cooperate effectively with teams

Respect and appreciate team diversity

Be accountable for results
Information, Media, and Technology Skills (P21.org)
Create Media Products

Understand and utilize the most appropriate media creation tools, characteristics and conventions
Apply Technology Effectively

Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information

Use digital technologies (computers, PDAs, media players, GPS, etc.), communication/networking tools and social networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information to successfully function in a knowledge economy
Materials
 Learning Management System: I use Haiku, but Google has Google Sites where you can set up a free learning management system.
 Recorded Lessons: This can be used for students and parents to go back and review the lesson, more practice problems, and for a flipped classroom. You can use ScreenChomp
 Steps and procedures that the student has written down. — he/she can use them as they practice problems.
 Daily Assessments: — Questions (510) that cover the topic. The students discuss answers with teacher and their peers. They reflect on how to solve the problem and what they need to continue to work on before the test.
 Practice Problems: — Problems that I have created or worksheets. These are problems that are customized to the student and what they need to continue to work on and practice.
 Visuals/Drawings: Have students that are having trouble with the concept to draw pictures of what they think the fraction addition problem will look like. You can check for understanding with this activity. As a teacher you can also have drawings on hand to help those that learn better with visuals.
 Question of The Day: — http://socrative.com/ — This is the website where I post the question on the day. I use this for the students to evaluate themselves each day after they have had practice and meet with me and worked with their peers. I want my students to have an understanding of where they are with their learning and be able to see their own progress. This also allows them to take ownership of their own learning process. Got the idea from this blog: http://classorganize.blogspot.ca/2013/10/exitslipexitticketticketoutdoor.html
 Google Docs: This is where the student will put their work for the 321 Bridge.
Lesson – Introduction
Have the students to think of something that is like a concept we have learned in our unit on Fractions. Then they had to explain to a partner what they had chosen to compare. If it made sense to their partner, they could use it in a 321 Bridge. I gave them the example below and told them they could not use this example and could not use the word given when writing their 321 bridge. when the students were approved by me that they had a good 321 bridge, they got to find a picture that represented it.
Lesson Activities and Procedures
Day one will consist of 30 minutes for practice. Day two will consist of collaboration with peers and/or the teacher which will be 60 minutes. The student will also be required to work the few new practice problems that are customized to what the student is having trouble with. They will then be required to take a *checkingin (Some students that get a 100 on their *checking in will not be required to work extra problems.) All students will need to watch the teachermade tutorials of the lesson and take notes on mean, median, and mode. Day three will consist of the learner watching another teachermade tutorial and taking notes on the material. They will practice what they have learned through collaboration with their peers and teacher. Day four will consist of collaboration with peers and/or the teacher which will be 60 minutes. The student will also be required to work the few new practice problems that are customized to what the student is having trouble with. They will then be required to take a *checkingin (Some students that get a 100 on their *checking in will not be required to work extra problems.) All students will need to watch the teachermade tutorials of the lesson and take notes on mean, median, and mode. Day Five will consist of the students applying the thinking routine
Student Procedure 
Teacher Procedure 
Materials 

Day 1  Day 1  Day 1 
The student will watch a teachermade lesson created by their teacher on adding fractions with unlike denominators, Or the students can watch the teacher demonstrate how to subtract fractions using the steps during facttoface instruction. (5 min)  The teacher will provide 3 Simple Steps for Subtracting Fractions.Step 1: You need to have a common denominator.
Step 2: Add or subtract the numerators keeping the denominator the same. Step 3: You need to simplify your fraction if needed. You might need to change an improper fraction to a mixed number. This will give you your final answer. 
Teachermade tutorials
Screencast: teachermade video for delivering instruction at home for flipped teaching (5 min) 
The student will take notes and work some practice problems while watching the lesson. 
The teacher will provide practice problems for the students to work.  practice problems from AAA math or from IXL (see above links)or

Day 2  Day 2  Day 2 
The student will come in the next day and take a “checkingin” so the teacher and student can see where they are on their understanding of the concept. 
The teacher will give a few practice problems either on a sheet of paper or within a technology tool (Quia.com) or Learning Management System (Haiku.com)  Learning Management System (LMS): Google, Edmodo, and/or Haiku for online learning 
The student will then reflect on the problems they got wrong by doing the following: a. They will go over the steps making sure they followed each step. b. Collaborate with a peer to talk about how to work the problems. c. They will meet with the teacher in small groups. Differentiation: Have students that are having trouble with the concept to draw pictures of what they think the fraction addition problem will look like. You can check for understanding with this activity. As a teacher you can also have drawings on hand to help those that learn better with visuals. 
The teacher will have the students to recall the steps for subtracting fractions in small groups or oneonone with the teacher. The teacher will provide differentiation through drawings for the visual learners.  
After making corrections and reflecting the student will work another practice problem following the steps.  The teacher will instruct the students who need more practice to complete additional problems.  customized list 
Day 3  Day 3  Day 3 
The student will watch a teachermade tutorial on subtracting mixed fractions with unlike denominators and adding whole numbers to fractions, or the students can watch the teacher demonstrate this on the board.  The teacher will provide the steps for subtracting mixed fractions with unlike denominators and adding whole numbers to fractions.  Teachermade tutorials Screencast: teachermade video for delivering instruction at home for flipped teaching (5 min)see link above 
The student will take notes and work some practice problems while watching the lesson.  The teacher will provide practice problems for the students to work.  
Day 4  Day 4  Day 4 
The student will come in the next day and take a “checking in” so the teacher and student can see where they are on their understanding of the concept.  The teacher will give a few practice problems either on a sheet of paper or within a technology tool  Learning Management System (LMS): Google, Edmodo, and/or Haiku for online learning 
The student will then reflect on the problems they got wrong by doing the following: a. They will go over the steps making sure they followed each step. b. Collaborate with a peer to talk about how to work the problems. c. They will meet with the teacher in small groups. Differentiation: Have students that are having trouble with the concept to draw pictures of what they think the fraction addition problem will look like. You can check for understanding with this activity. As a teacher you can also have drawings on hand to help those that learn better with visuals. 
The teacher will have the students to recall the steps for subtracting fractions in small groups or oneonone with the teacher.The teacher will provide differentiation through drawings for the visual learners.  Customized list 
Day 5  Day 5  Day 5 
The student will work on their 321 with a partner and collaborate on what they are going to compare the concept to.  The teacher will organize groups for completing a 321 Bridge using fractions and explain how to apply the thinking routine.  Making Thinking Visible 
The student will present their final 321 to the class in a Google Doc.  The teacher will give feedback to the students. When they have a final product the student can find a picture that will work  321 bridge 
Lesson Closure
Students will share their work with the class on a Google Doc, some will present to the class, and others will display their work in the classroom. The students will also take a test on the concepts they learned in this unit.
Assessment
As I look over the 321 Bridges, I look for creativity, and understanding. Does the student understand the concept well enough to pick an out of the box concept to compare to Subtracting fractions with borrowing. When they present the 321 Bridge are they able
to explain why they wrote what they wrote.
Student Sample
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Teacher Reflection
Author Profile:
Windy May
References:
English Idioms Daily Blog. (2012, January 1). Retrieved August 3, 2014, from
http://www.englishidioms.com/articles/files/tagidiomexercisesforkids.html
Ritchhart, R., Church, M., & Morrison, K. (2011). Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and
Independence for All Learners. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.